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inSpect Display Assembly Visual Inspection of Display Assembly

Automated in-line visual inspection for display assembly, including backlight assembly, optical bonding, and final assembly processes.

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Elaborate visual inspection

We developed visual inspection technology that ensures complete quality control throughout the entire display assembly process. The vision system verifies the correct product type, precise positioning, and dimensions according to predefined tolerances, ensuring flawless assembly and optimal performance. Cameras, optics, and lighting are strategically installed at defined stages, inspecting foils, light guides, retaining plates, and other components before and after installation.

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Gripper compensation

In the assembly process, cameras coordinate with robots to ensure precise pick-and-place positions. Any deviation is transmitted back to the robot’s coordinate system to correct assembly element slippage. The gripper’s pick and place steps are isolated, allowing independent monitoring and control. This separation facilitates faster interventions for significant offsets or errors and enables separate calibration of each step.

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Transparent overview

Each station in the process is equipped with its own monitoring screen, featuring all configurations, product types, camera tasks, object searches, and product specifications. Test emulators, mode selections, and image storage are also available. Customers have an option to integrate the solution with their MES system and have clear access to parameter settings, result measurements, and stored images. RFID tags are used for product tracking, allowing the entire process to be reviewed at any time in the future.

Automated in-line visual inspection for display assembly

Our turnkey in-line visual inspection solution automates quality testing for both simple and complex display assembly shapes, ensuring precision, reliability, and performance. Designed for optimal resource usage, our assembly lines are operator- and maintenance-friendly, featuring advanced vision systems for precise component positioning and tolerance measurement, all performed in an in-house developed ISO 7 cleanroom emulation.

Functionality tests at the end of the line ensure only quality parts proceed, with all results reported for complete traceability. Integrated with MES systems, our technology streamlines operations and enhances quality control.


High-accuracy positioning and
measurement with vision systems

Our automated display assembly lines integrate INEA’s extensive expertise with cutting-edge technologies to fully automate inspection and quality testing, from simple to complex display shapes. These lines are designed to optimize resource usage while being operator- and maintenance-friendly.

Industrial visual inspection equipment utilizes robust cameras, sensors, and LED lighting systems to ensure high precision and accuracy. Equipped with advanced vision systems, our assembly lines ensure precise component positioning and tolerance measurement. Vision systems are complemented with high-accuracy digital contact sensors measure thickness, flatness, and parallelism.

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Robot pick and place
verification

The display assembly line incorporates numerous phases of robot manipulation, leveraging advanced vision systems and robotic processes to ensure precision and quality. Each station operates as an individual cell, equipped with systems that perform comprehensive quality checks. These checks verify the presence, condition, rotation, and position of each part within the robot’s operational area using industrial vision technology. Once verified, the system sends the pick-up coordinates to the PLC. A camera captures an image and transmits the measured coordinates to the PLC, ensuring accurate robot manipulation.

A high-precision vision system identifies the product’s spatial orientation and position, ensuring picking accuracy within 0.1 mm. When tray limitations prevent precise identification, an auxiliary pick-and-place system on a backlit table is employed to maintain accuracy.

Calculating offset according to
predefined tolerances

During the process, the robot moves the part for a gripper check, measuring the pick error and sends this data to the PLC. The gripper position check detects the part in the gripper, calculates the part’s angle and offset from the calibration part, and sends offsets to the PLC to eliminate mechanical picking errors.

inSpect captures an image of the placement position, transmitting these coordinates to the PLC for final placement quality checks. This ensures the placement space on the pallet is inspected, and the coordinates are sent to the PLC. After placement, the robot moves out of the inspection area, and a new image is acquired to verify correct placement within defined tolerances.
To account for potential discrepancies due to tight assembly tolerances, the relative position of the part within the robot gripper is checked again—a step known as “gripper compensation.” This ensures the highest accuracy in the final placement of each part.

Inspect Display 03 Calculating Offset

Inspect Display 04 Defective Comp Detect

Defective component detection
linked to product ID

Measurement parameters are linked to product IDs, cross-checked with nominal values, and reported to the information system. If values fall outside set tolerances, the system reacts in one of two ways:

  • Fully Automatic Mode: The part is marked as NOK (Not OK) and is not processed further. This mode requires no operator intervention. At the end of the line, NOK components are unloaded, analysed, and either scrapped or sent for rework.
  • Manual Mode: An alarm triggers for operator intervention. The operator assesses the components’ suitability for continuation. If unsuitable, the operator removes the part and resets the system for the robot to load new components.

End-of-line functionality testing
with complete traceability

To ensure only quality parts proceed to the final customer, various functionality tests are conducted at the end of the line, with all results and measurements reported to the information system for complete traceability. Failing any test results in automatic rejection of the part, which can then be reviewed in the system for potential rework.

Typical end-of-line testing includes homogeneity tests, touch tests, surface inspections, and sub-pixel tests. During these tests, a specially designed connector establishes a stable connection to the product, enabling power supply and system communication. Once powered, the product undergoes multiple tests to detect and rectify potential defects.

Specialized test probes with coaxial cables are used for high-frequency signals, ensuring robust and reliable connections while minimizing environmental interference. This comprehensive testing approach guarantees the reliability and quality of each component before it moves forward in the production process.

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High-accuracy micro
contacting

In the product contacting inspection process, precise micro-contacting is ensured through a high-resolution vision system. Our testing setup includes an integrated camera system that identifies contacting surfaces on connectors and corrects any offsets on the product. This system accurately detects the positions of the display’s connection pins and aligns the contacting head accordingly. Before contact, a servo mechanism adjusts the contacting head’s position, ensuring seamless engagement with fine structures and small test points, down to 0.5 mm pitch, using probes with a tip diameter of only 0.27mm.

This setup achieves flawless connections between test probes and product, enabling accurate measurements even for intricate electronic components. This precision ensures early fault detection, which reduces warranty claims for the end product.

Early defect detection in
manufacturing

Supported by internally developed, user-friendly templates for camera calibration and PLC communication, these components streamline setup and operation processes. Manufacturing Execution System (MES) connections for all machines can be monitored and reset from the main Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, while statuses, settings, and resets for individual machines can be managed directly from the machine HMI.

By enabling early detection of defective components, this advanced equipment reduces material waste, lowers overall costs, and significantly minimizes warranty claims in manufacturing.

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Key Technologies

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Homogeneity tests

A homogeneity test in display assembly assesses the uniformity of brightness and colour across the display surface to prevent uneven illumination or colour shifts. It uses photometric sensors, colorimeters, and high-resolution cameras to measure light intensity and colour output at various points. The process involves setting up the display in a controlled environment, capturing measurement data, analysing it for variations, and making adjustments to correct inconsistencies.
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Touch tests

A touch test in display assembly ensures the functionality and accuracy of touch-sensitive components using automated simulators, manual testing, and diagnostic software. It verifies response to user inputs, touch point detection, and performance parameters like responsiveness, accuracy, sensitivity, and multi-touch capability. The process includes setting up the display, providing inputs, analysing data, and making necessary adjustments.
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Surface inspection

A surface inspection identifies defects like scratches, smudges, cracks, or other imperfections affecting performance or aesthetics. High-resolution cameras, optical sensors, and automated systems capture detailed images and detect irregularities with high precision. The process includes setting up the display, capturing and analysing images, documenting defects, and transmitting data to the quality control system.
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Sub-pixel inspection

Sub-pixel inspection ensures each sub-pixel functions correctly, enhancing display quality and performance. This process detects defects affecting colour accuracy, brightness uniformity, and image quality. Using microscopic cameras and optical testing equipment, high-resolution images are captured and analysed by automated systems to detect defects like dead or stuck pixels. Results are documented and sent to quality control for potential rework or rejection of defective panels.

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Frequently Asked Questions

The display assembly process is monitored with exceptional precision, ensuring that any deviations are detected and corrected within a tolerance of less than 0.1 mm. This high level of accuracy guarantees consistent quality and reliability throughout the assembly process.
INEA provides comprehensive solutions for display assembly production lines, incorporating advanced visual inspection technology. We manage every aspect of the process, including software programming, system design, and hardware integration. Our turnkey solutions ensure seamless integration of visual inspection systems, enabling precise quality control and efficient production. By leveraging our expertise, we deliver fully integrated, high-performance assembly lines tailored to meet your specific needs.
In addition to various PLC, SCADA, MES and Historian solutions, INEA frequently integrates advanced systems such as Cognex and Keyence, among others, to meet any specific need. As experienced integrators, we can work with any system, ensuring our solutions are flexible and tailored to the requirements. We prioritize using high-quality equipment to ensure reliability and performance in our integrations. Our goal is to provide seamless, efficient, and effective integration solutions that enhance production capabilities.
All images captured during the assembly process are saved and sent to the customer's server. These images are available for real-time review and include comprehensive statistics and traceability for individual pieces on the production line.
Visual inspection technology enhances quality control by providing real-time monitoring and analysis of each component. It detects defects, misalignments, and inconsistencies early in the process, allowing for immediate corrections and reducing the risk of defective products reaching the end of the assembly line.
Visual inspection systems can detect a wide range of defects, including scratches, smudges, cracks, dead pixels, sub-pixel anomalies, homogeneity alignment issues, and inconsistencies in brightness and color uniformity. These systems ensure that each display meets the required quality standards.
To ensure accuracy in high-speed assembly lines, visual inspection systems are equipped with high-resolution cameras, advanced image processing algorithms, and real-time data analysis capabilities. These systems are calibrated regularly and integrated with precise robotic controls to maintain consistent accuracy.
Data from visual inspection systems is collected and analysed to identify trends and recurring issues. This information is used to refine assembly processes, adjust machine settings, and implement preventive measures. Continuous monitoring and feedback loops help in making informed decisions for process optimization and quality enhancement.

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